Gender differences in stroke treatment and prevention

Over the years, experimental science has developed a standard protocol for the testing of medical hypotheses using animal models which calls for the use of males only. Why? Because no laboratory scientist wants to deal with those pesky female hormones. Female hormone fluctuations are viewed as just another variable to be controlled (generally by excluding females altogether) — all the better for making interpretation of results simple and straightforward.

But, as common sense might dictate, it turns out that results from male-only animal models often give a less-than-accurate view of the whole picture when this research is translated and applied to treatment of disease in humans. Why? Because, as most people without a doctorate in physiology can tell you, physiological gender differences exist. Is it any surprise, then, that disease treatment and prevention should also be prescribed with these physiological differences in mind?

And so the buzz for the past few years in the medical community is the astonishing fact that stroke treatment and prevention are not the same in men and women. In labs that have recently begun to investigate these differences, drugs that were found to protect male brains against stroke in animal models did nothing to protect female brains. The major message behind all this press: doctors cannot continue to apply one-size-fits-all prescriptions for stroke prevention and treatment.

The real fact is that it is even more complicated than a “simple” physiological difference. Traditionally, cardiovascular disease has been viewed as a “man’s disease” (men have about a 19 percent greater chance of stroke than women). Accordingly, studies have found that women are less likely to receive prescriptions for blood pressure medications or be advised to take aspirin, both of which have been shown to reduce stroke risk. Strangely, women are less often treated after having a stroke, even though they appear to respond better to acute stroke treatment (such as tissue plasminogen activator) than men. So while men do indeed have more strokes, women are still more likely to die from stroke.

Women are also at increased risk if they take birth control pills, use hormone replacement therapy, have a thick waist and high triglycerides, or are migraine sufferers. And, contrary to anecdotal evidence, women appear to be less likely to go to the hospital at the first sign of stroke symptoms.

Oregon Health and Science University is at the forefront of research into gender differences in medicine, having developed the first research institute of its kind, the OHSU Research Center for Gender-Based Medicine. Given that Oregon recently ranked 46th out of 50 states for incidence of stroke deaths among women (as reported by Making the Grade on Women’s Health: A National and State-by-State Report Card, 2007), there is obviously a need for gender-based medical research to save the lives of women at increased risk of cardiovascular and other disease.

The hostile wife phenomenon in cryonics

On August 23, Chana and Aschwin de Wolf drafted a blog entry on the phenomenon of partners who are hostile to cryonics. We sent our draft for review to a number of high profile cryonicists and received a message from Mike Darwin telling us that he still had an unpublished article on this topic. Because Darwin’s experience and observations resembled our own, and we believed there was a lot of value to his analysis, we decided to integrate our observations and his article to produce an even more comprehensive piece on the topic. The resulting draft  was distributed again to other cryonics activists and produced some additional text that was added as an appendix to the original article.

Although we do not have any illusions that the problem of hostile partners, and hostile female partners in particular, will be disappearing anytime soon, we believe it is important that this matter of life and death is documented. We also hope that this article will be of help to cryonicists, or people who want to make cryonics arrangements, who have hostile family members.

Michael Darwin, Chana de Wolf, Aschwin de Wolf – Is That What Love is? The Hostile Wife Phenomenon in Cryonics.

The article is also available as a PDF file with images and appendixes